開槍前給予清晰而對方明白的警告是必須

小弟看到不少人對何文田開槍案的討論,例如警察不用英語警告對方無問題,感到搖晒頭。

事實上,若果警察槍擊前給予對方以至公眾的警告不清晰,是有可能有問題。

像英國倫敦警察於2005年錯誤地將巴西公民Jean Charles de Menezes當成自殺式炸彈客,在地鐵站槍殺這名無辜青年,英國警方的情報搜集固然只能用膠來形容,但就算英國Crown Prosecution Service以職業安全的法律成功令倫敦警察繳付巨額罰款,這宗案仍然沒完沒了。而最近的調查顯示,警察沒有給予警告,或給予警告令外界誤會,一樣是大有問題。

Armed police fired on Jean Charles de Menezes without shouting any warning, witnesses have claimed at an inquest.
Passenger Rachel Wilson said she thought the officers were terrorists when they shot dead the Brazilian at Stockwell Tube station on 22 July 2005.

這是英國BBC有關Jean Charles de Menezes案,去年十月底的死因聆訊的報導,最初很多人,包括小弟以Jean Charles de Menezes只是言語不通被槍殺,但後來越查發現真相越硬膠,乘客甚至以為那些Armed Police才是恐怖分子(在英國,並不是每一位警員配槍的)。

好了,回到何文田槍擊案,到底那名警員的廣東話警告,是不是一個有效的槍擊警告?或者在對方文化,警察的警告用語會否造成相反效果,例如「唔好迫我」呢句,係唔係膠?

大家看德國之聲對Jean Charles de Menezes案的報導:

警方称,在斯托克韦尔地铁站,警察试图拦住梅内泽斯,但这名巴西人立刻逃跑,冲下地铁滚动楼梯奔向等候在站台上的地铁,警察随即开枪打倒了梅内泽斯,因为警察看到他身披一件宽大外套,以为里面可能藏有炸弹。BBC驻巴西的记者报道说,梅内泽斯曾长时间居住在巴西圣保罗的贫民区,他看到警察奔向他就逃跑,这可能是一种下意识的习惯。

警察以為已經給予充足的警告,事實效果恰恰相反就夠你煩到爆。可能有關警員不用負起刑事責任,根據Jean Charles de Menezes案的調查邏輯,現時警員與指揮中心之間的通話,以及警方給予警員的訓練和指引,如果缺少了關於少數族裔情況的訓練,或者有關指令係有問題,就有可能警務處處長,基於Strict Liability的法理原則要負起民事甚至刑事責任。

小弟同意融樂會的要求,必須作出獨立調查,不論還死者公道,還是還開槍警員的公道,如果警察訓練有問題,那有關警員承受這樣大的壓力是不合理。而Rachel今天在專欄說是有道理,現時香港警察應該檢討針對少數族裔的開槍警告程序。這是一條人命,小弟不想有更多人命,因硬膠的訓練而失去。

延伸閱讀:
繆美詩:「唔好逼我!」
BBC: Menezes police ‘gave no warning’
德國之聲中文組:伦敦误杀无辜案:巴西人称这是“枪决”
英國IPCC關於Menezes案的調查報告

3 thoughts on “開槍前給予清晰而對方明白的警告是必須

  1. My question is still remain the same: if that potential victim is Caucasian or appear to be from Mainland China, will the police still speaking Cantonese to him, knowing the potential victim clearly won’t response? This not about the issue of “this is Hong Kong, Hong Kong ppl speak Cantonese so no one will warn you in your mother tongue you idiot”, this is solely common sense that you goal is to communicate with anyway you can in a situation like this, not to retain some pride that you never had before.
    But again, in that film you can see the police for freak out too (if he is calm enough, he would never said things like “唔好迫我” rather like “I will shoot (into something) after I count to three if you keep moving or resisting”), so I think he this is his first time dealing with a person who is somewhat attacking him (or simply he didn’t got prepare to this type of situation before).

  2. 其實真係想知世界各地的警察對少數族裔人士是如何應對,相信是有一個清楚的指引。
    我想起多年前福建人蛇在美國那次,唔知美國警察係叫佢地「freeze」定係講福建閩南話「唔準動」。

發表迴響

你的電子郵件位址並不會被公開。 必要欄位標記為 *

Time limit is exhausted. Please reload CAPTCHA.